Alexandr Valentinovich Makhnach is Candidate of Science (Psychology), Leading Research Officer at the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow).
The medical and social models are compared; the legitimacy of the paradigm shift studies and the emergence of the social model in the majority of social sciences and medicine are justified. Model of health (social model) is based on the principle of equality of all: people with the special needs and the ordinary people. The coexistence of two approaches: from the perspective of the deficit (medical model) and health (social model) - is considered on the example of the phenomenology and discourse of the orphanhood. Orphanhood in the medical model describes the environment of the orphans themselves in terms of "syndromes" and "symptoms" of unfavorable life situations, which leads to the reproduction of the circle of disadvantage. The shift away from the medical model in favor of the social one relates to a certain degree to phenomenology of the orphanhood. The emergence of health psychology is regarded as a departure from the medical model to the research and treatment of human resilience. The social model as a precursor of the resilience research was analyzed. The operationalization of the "resilience" concept was made. There have been presented four aspects of the ecological model which provide the results of the undertaken research. Factor structure of resilience is described within the framework of four factors: "Relationships", "Subculture", "Community", "and Personality characteristics". Relationships are considered as the most important resource for the resilience of teenage orphans.
Key words: medical model vs social model, operationalization of the "human resilience" concept, resilience of the orphans, the factor structure of resilience.
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