Aigul Abdulhaevna Aldasheva is Doctor of Psychology, Senior Research Assistant, Laboratory of Psychology of Labour at the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow).
Research of the personal adaptation shows that this process advances within the frame of the general theory of adaptation as a process designed to empower people in their interaction with the environment. From this perspective adaptation is viewed as its active form. The human adaptation with the focus on attaining behavioral balance is doomed to being the passive form of adaptation. Adaptation, as well as all other life events, is characterized by certain rules, defining the organism and its activity, from both positive and negative perspective. Summarizing the existing rules and laws, V.I. Medvedev shows that there is no adaptation of the functions by and in itself, but there is, ultimately, the adaptation of man. The basis for the formation of the adaptation response on the personal level is primarily the peculiarities of person's self-regulation, which reflect Medvedev's general laws of adaptation, as has been empirically verified. This approach allows us to compare the elected behavioral strategy with the conditions dictated by professional activity. It has been demonstrated that harmonization of relations with the environment requirements can result in an adaptation strategy which will be of a short-term nature, as well as the active one aimed at creating individual ways of coping with the situation. Empirical studies of professional adaptation of specialists engaged in life-threatening activities shed light upon the following laws: "priority", "reciprocal change", "removal of constraints", "anticipation of the worst", "reversibility of adaptation", and "conceptual model".
Key words: adaptation, adaptive response, the laws of adaptation, high mountain areas, personality, conceptual model, strategies, mobilization, social isolation, cyclical activity.
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