Alexandr Nikolaevich Kalyuzhny is Candidate of Science (Law), Associate Professor of Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law at Russian Academy of Federal Protective Service.
This article analyzes the necessity of reflection patterns of criminal activity in the objects of the material world and the minds of people for effective detection and investigation of criminal offenses to personal freedom. The author points out that the traces of unlawful activities provide information about the person's offenders, their physical and psychological characteristics, skills, crime, guns and vehicles used by criminals and other circumstances relevant to the case in this connection; hence, it is necessary to classify them.
Based on the research subject, features and display signs of criminal attacks aimed at freedom of the individual items in the objective reality and the minds of men, the author believes it possible for these offenses fall into two groups, combining the assault, with traces of criminal activities, similar on a number of grounds: a) the offense leaving minimal traces of criminal activities (kidnapping, unlawful confinement and unlawful placement in a psychiatric facility and b) the offense giving rise to a large number of traces of crime (offenses, providing for penalties for trafficking and the use of slave labor).
Analysis of the mechanism of trace formation of the crimes in question allows all material traces of the perpetrators of illegal activities that infringe on personal freedom to be classified into groups: a) evidence of the involvement of victims in criminal activity and b) coercing the participation of victims in criminal designs, which are characteristic of all criminal acts presented in the analyzed category.
At the same time, a group of the crimes that generate a significant amount of traces of criminal activities, has the following characteristic features: с) traces a set of consumers finding of advertised services, and d) traces of exploitation of victims.
The author analyzes the patterns show signs of illegal activity in each of these groups and makes a general conclusion.
Key words: traces, crime classification, freedom, personality.