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RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIAN TRADESMEN AND CHUKOTKA NATIVES IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES: CREDIT
Jarzutkina A. S.



        Jarzutkina Anastasia Alekseevna – candidate of historical Sciences, the scientific employee of Laboratory of complex study of the Chukotka Peninsula North-East complex scientific-research Institute Feb RAS (Anadyr).


Annotation

The paper poses the question of studying economic (trade) relations as cultural phenomena integrated into the social links network and formed under the influence of various population groups' world views and ethnic stereotypes. Basing on extensive ethnographic sources, relations of Russian tradesmen with Chukotka Natives are studied on the example of such economic phenomenon as credit.

Social and cultural aspects of credit relations are considered. Special attention is given to studying credit perception of the traditional culture representatives, for whom the top priority in trade was personal links, not seeking profit. Russian merchants' trading behavior is analyzed as well as their specific marketing techniques applicable for specific conditions of the Chukotka Peninsula, where Russians had to trade. These techniques included the mandatory sequence of actions when concluding a deal (trading ritual), special behavior in relations with Natives, considering the demand for a specific merchandise group, etc. establishing credit relations with Natives required that a merchant know their cultural peculiarities, etiquette, and world view.

A conclusion is made that credit, in its shape accepted in Chukotka in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries, was a cross-cultural phenomenon, combining the Native traditions of gift exchange and the special marketing techniques developed by Russian tradesmen.

The paper also researches the conditions of trading relations between Russian merchants and Natives of the western part of the Chukotka Peninsula. It depicts opportunities for developing trade contacts and touches upon the issue of the trading calendar of Russian merchants.

        Key words: ethnography, economic anthropology, trade relations, Chukotka native inhabitants, Russian traders, credit, gift exchange.


 
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