Lipskaya Vlada Mikhailovna – Candidate of Science (Philosophy), Associate Professor, Department of Costume Design (St. Petersburg State University of Service and Economics).
The article is devoted to the survey of corporal and psychological classifications which lie at the basis of formation of the conception of personality, both a concrete real person and a hypothetical image of a denizen of a particular historical epoch. The major attention is paid to the costume qua a phenomenon of culture and the way it is determined both by the personality per se and certain inborn corporeal and psychological characteristics.
The author posits that a costume is not something that covers and, consequently, hides, makes invisible, but on the contrary, an entity that discloses, reveals the subjective inner world of person. This premise results in the conviction that costume should not be perceived as the so-called ‘second skin' (which is precisely what clothes are), the closest to the actual first one, or as an item that conceals something that should not be made visible but more as a distinct metaphorical system whose patterns and shapes are subject to certain alterations depending on what actually happens in the inner world of person.
The body (‘the cultural body') in the social framework may manifest itself not primarily via clothes but through systematic links embodied in a costume - that is, via the closest possible cover existing in close proximity to the body itself, the closest outer layer.
Costume design to a greater degree should take into account the psychological type of person since it is centered primarily on two basic human instincts: those of self-preservation (self-perfecting) and continuation of the species.
Taking into account all the existing types and combinations of temperament - in the form of psychotypes - together with constitutional types (the latter may correlate or form various complex modifications) - allows for creating certain general principles for the formation of taxonomy of costume design.
This is precisely the type of costume that can help a person obtain new ways of personal development in modern world.
Key words: costume, body, temperament, constitution, psychological type, person.