Soboleva Tatyana Nikolaevna – Candidate of Psychology, Associate Professor of Psychology Department of the Far Eastern State Transportation University (Khabarovsk).
This study touches upon the problem of the development of professional abilities by means of purposeful forming of intellectual operations, from the position of V.D. Shadrikov's system-genetic approach. It is proved in the laboratory of psychology of abilities that the structure of cognitive abilities is a combination of functional and operational mechanisms, the development of which is conditioned, first, by ontogenetic programs, and second - by education, upbringing, training. Mastering of abilities is possible through mastering of operational mechanisms. The system of intellectual operations: analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstracting, classification, systematization and others is stated as a universal operational mechanism. Professional abilities of a subject of activity are cognitive abilities which acquire some features of efficiency, subtle aiming under the influence of activity requirements. Professional abilities of a subject of activity are cognitive, which obtained operational traits due to the activity requirements. Professionals' abilities become intellectual as a result of large amount of intellectual operations, as they provide formation of complex informational foundation of activity, program of activity and processes of decision-making. In this connection V.D. Shadrikov marks out intellectual operations of "the second order" and considers them to be metaintellectual operations determining activity and behavior: understanding, decision-making, goal-setting, modeling, etc. Our research proved the fact that forming of intellectual operations of "the second order" such as perception, understanding and modeling of professional abilities ensures efficiency of locomotive operator's managing activity in terms of productivity (the quantity of security violations) and reliability (fault correction time). The operations given can rightly be regarded as psychological subsystems of actions in an operator's managing activity.
Key words: abilities, activity, professional abilities, functional mechanisms, operational mechanisms, intellectual operations, efficiency of activity.