UNDERSTANDING IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL OPTICS
Zvenigorodskaya G. P.
Zvenigorodskaya Galina Petrovna – Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of Theory and Practice of Social and Humanitarian Technologies Department of the Far Eastern State Humanitarian University (Khabarovsk).
The article is focused on the methodological significance of the category of understanding for humanitarian and social sciences. The urgency of the study of nature and mechanisms of this phenomenon is connected with education problems; the main is seen to limit the phenomenon of understanding by epistemological context. However, the ability to understand becomes the essential characteristic, the criterion of psychological and pedagogical competence of a specialist of professional sphere "man-man", taking into account the following pattern: the more complex mechanisms of interaction, the less productive the "technologies" of interaction. The reception of phenomenology by psychology and pedagogy is provided by provisions changing the understanding of the relations of people involved in educational process. The choice of phenomenological approach for explication of the phenomenon of understanding is associated with ontological meaning of education, which allows us to consider the understanding in educational process in a broader scientific and practical range. This article contemplates the problem of understanding in the context of phenomenological approach using the method of phenomenological reduction, shifts the focus from formal education to personality-oriented one. Phenomenological optics allows not only strengthening the multifaceted nature of the category of understanding theoretically, but with the help of phenomenological methods to enrich the practice of understanding in educational activity. The article deals with the conditions and phenomenological methods, which have a high degree of interactivity and heuristics and promote the understanding of a personality in educational process.
Key words: phenomenological approach, the subjective specificity of understanding, spiritual intention, methods of reflective cognition, non-technical methods of understanding.