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THE CHINESE EAST RAILWAY AND KWANTUNG AREA AS OBJECTS OF RUSSIAN CHINESE BORDER RELATIONS IN THE FAR EAST IN THE END OF THE 19TH - BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURIES
Makuha N. A.



        Makuha, Nina Aleksandrovna – Candidate of Science (History), Senior Lecturer of the Department of Economy, Political Science, Sociology and Law at the Far East State University of Humanities (Khabarovsk).

E-mail: z21nina@yandex.ru


Annotation

The article analyzes the impact of the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the formation of the Kwantung region on Russian-Chinese border relations in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. This article shows the views of the Russian border administration, relating to political and economic processes taking place in the Amur region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. It identifies the historical roots of the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, passing through the territory of Manchuria, and addresses the issue of acquisition for the Russian navy of an ice-free port, as well as problems associated with these processes. Throughout the article is the idea that poor transport infrastructure, low population and low mobility of the Russian armed forces led to the vulnerability of the military and economic point of view of the Russian Far East. In the event of war in the Far Eastern front there is a risk of loss by Russia of its territories. A major measure to strengthen its position in the Far East was the planned construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Due to the great technical difficulties associated with a harsh climate and the terrain of the Amur in 1895, Witte introduced a draft of the State Council, "The Manchurian option," which dealt with the acquisition of the concession to build a railroad across Manchuria to Vladivostok, and also to lease an ice-sea port in Korea or China, which caused a mixed assessment in the Amur region, and in St. Petersburg. Later requirements were developed in China, in the center of which was the question about renting territory in the south of Liaodong together with the ports, which became the end point of the Chinese Eastern Railway. In these circumstances, the Russian authorities needed to have constant control over the actions of the central government of China to promptly fix or paralyze activities that could threaten Russia's security in the Far East.

        Key words: Kwantung area, Chinese Eastern Railway, Russian-Chinese border relations, Far East, Manchuria, ice-free port.


 
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