COMMUNITY LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE AMUR VILLAGE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Vakulenko O. B.
Vakulenko, Ol’ga Borisovna – Associate Professor of Humanities, Institute of Education Development of the Amur region (Blagoveshchensk).
The article is devoted to communal land tenure in the Amur region at the beginning of the twentieth century. Due to the absence of landlordism in the region communal land had a number of characteristics that were not typical for the European part of Russia: the absence of the peasants' right to quit the community; "mutual responsibility", unalienated plots; and the high taxation of peasant land.
The article deals with aspects of the Amur community as a unit of ground, which is sometimes associated with the emergence of egalitarian redistribution of land. The absence of redistribution under the rule of capture does not deny the right of the known role of the community in the land relations of the peasants. At the repartition, and concomitant relations and events, agrarian community functions had most striking and full expression. During the formation of the community its ground-regulatory activities were revealed in other forms such as the prescribed manner of sharing some of the land, and dealing with land disputes between farmers. The village community dealt with all the land affairs, the community orders expressed themselves in the existence of common pastures for cattle, the annual redistribution of mowing land shares, a communal using fields (pastures) and woods. The influence of the community could not help affecting the acts of alienation and lease of the land.
This article analyzes the nature of the land estates in the Amur region, which is proved by the different rates of allotment for the old-timers, newcomers and the Cossacks. There were no vestiges of feudalism in the Amur region which would impede the development of agriculture as in the European part of Russia. The absence of large landed estates and private land ownership helped to preserve the squatting system of appropriation of land, which caused the rapid growth of capitalism in the Amur country. All these factors explain the peculiarity of agrarian relations in the Amur region.
Key words: the Amur, old-timers, new settlers, a farming community, land redistribution, land capture.