EDUCATIONAL-SCIENTIFIC SPHERE OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE: IDEOLOGY, ADMINISTRATION, LEGAL REGULATION
Zipunnikova N. N.
Zipunnikova, Natalia Nikolaevna – Candidate of Science (Law), Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of History of State and Law at the Urals State Law Academy (Yekaterinburg).
The paper presents a historical-legal analysis of ideology, administration and legislation in education and science. The author emphasizes the special ("strengthening") role of the state in education and science. General ideological concepts of interaction between authority and public structures ("the common good", "collaboration") were introduced into the sphere of education and science. The triad "autocracy - orthodoxy - national spirit", the idea of "true enlightenment" and others matured in the depths of the Ministry of National Education (MNE), were translated to the society in general. The author considers the thesis of the statehood of the national ideology to be fair: it is the state which formulates the propositions of ideology through the realization of them in concrete governmental programs in practice. The history of the administration of education and science is divided into two stages: before the establishment of MNE (pre-ministerial) (18th century) and after its establishment (ministerial) (19th - beginning of the 20th centuries). During the first period legislative enactments of an educational and scientific character were initiated by the supreme bodies of power; during the second period a significant role was played by the acts issued by the MNE and scientific-educational committees of other agencies (military, legal, internal affairs, etc.). When school districts were established in Russia, the educational legislation was supplemented by trustee acts. These aspects of the profound theme "education and science in the Russian Empire" are far from being completely understood by researchers. Study of these aspects has prospects both from positions of "pure science" and of practice. Foreign guidelines in education and science and limits of borrowings are not the themes of recent years. Rich Russian traditions were formed in the process of long-term cross-cultural communication and as the result of active research and the spiritual reflection of contemporary scholars.