Kozlikhin, Igor’ Yurievich – Doctor of Science (Law), Professor, Honoured Science Worker of the Russian Federation.
The paper shows the specific features of the Jewish law as the law that had formed in Jewish communities as a result of judicial interpretation of the Torah and provides analysis of the principles of legal proceedings and the scope of judicial judgment. Jewish law is interpreted as the most significant element of Jewish national culture. On the one hand, Jewish law (Mosaic Law) belongs to an Eastern type of culture, and on the other hand it belongs to a European type. Religiousness is characteristic of the eastern type of culture therefore moral requirements become obligatory for all as well as the legal norm because they have the same source - God. The major difference of Mosaic Law from the oriental systems is that Mosaic Law in its essence is an expression of free union between God and people. People found defense of their interests in their communities. Communities provided their members with their rights and freedoms, had no class differences and supported economic equality. The court of law created by Moses is a standard model for all times. European civilization formed these values independently although not without the influence of Judaism. Owing to Jesus Christ major achievements of Judaism became a universal heritage, first and foremost, being the idea of self-value of each separate individual personality. It was that personality that later became perceived as the subject of law. Thus, Jewish Law is the product of centuries-old creative work of the Jewish people in the persons of Torah sages. If we take into consideration the preservation of fundamental cultural principles, the present day should certainly feed from this source. Jewish law and Jewish legal culture have gradually or immediately impacted the common legal values of all humankind.
Key words: law, Jewish law, Torah, Talmud, halacha/halakah, mammon, court of law, legal proceedings.