In this article, historical paradigms are considered in the aspect of textual interpretation and explanation as the main theoretical model, which determines the researchers’ attitudes to the object of historical research and its substance. A structural and institutional type of historical paradigms is considered, within which two interpretative models have changed each other. This type includes a synthesizing model, which has replaced the interactive model. The former model can be characterized by excessive sociologism; the latter is based on cultural determination of historical reality. Depending on the method, historical truth makes historians work at a problem of its paradigm basis.