The education level of population is the most important aspect of social and cultural dynamics. It determines the degree of comprehensibility of cultural achievements and their influence on people. Being aware of this, communists carried out the policy of improving education level. In the 1920 -1930s, significant changes in education level of the urban population took place in the Russian Far East. The illiteracy was almost eliminated. The number of citizens who completed their secondary and tertiary education increased. The consideration of comprehensive education processes in terms of social and cultural dynamics allowed the author to revise the correlation of social and cultural components.